Timeline

This timeline has been prepared to give you an overview of significant historical events in Afghanistan and Pakistan.

1933 Name of Pakistan is suggested by a student, Chadhuri Rahmat Ali, where he said there should be a separate homeland for Muslims in the Muslim majority provinces of the north. P is for Punjab, A is for Afghans, K is for Kashmir, S is for Sind and Tan. The word also means land of the pure in Urdu.4

Pakistan claims that Jammu and Kashmir should belong to them because the majority of both inhabitants of these provinces are Muslim.4

India claims that the provinces belong to them because leader Maharaja of Kashmir, decided to join India.4

1947 India is portioned into a predominantly Hindi and secular India and the new Muslim state of Pakistan after India gains independence from Great Britain. After the split, riots ensue, masses of people are moved, left homeless, and the fighting continues today. Over a half million people are killed.4

October 1947- January 1 1949 Pakistan and India go to war after armed tribesmen invade Kashmir. Maharaja fights back with aid from India in return for acceding to India. This is confirmed by a referendum.4

1948 May: Pakistani Army is called upon to protect the Pakistan border.4

1949 January 1: The War between India and Pakistan ends with a ceasefire arranged by the United Nations. A peace keeping force is established but the referendum is never upheld.4

1954 Jammu and Kashmir accession is ratified.4

1965 April: Clash between the border patrols of India and Pakistan. Pakistan claims victory.4

August: Second Indo-Pakistani war begins.4

September Pakistan launches an offensive across the ceasefire into the Jammu Kashmir region and India crosses back over the border. Both agree later to a UN ceasefire.4

1966 January: Both India and Pakistani governments agree to meet and sign a declaration to solve disputes by peaceful means.

1968 China offers to supervise and fund the completion of the 1,300 km road from Kashgar in southwestern China to Islamabad in hopes of having an easy route to a new market for their goods and to limit Soviet influence.5

1971 War breaks out again, pitting East Pakistan against West Pakistan. West Pakistan is airlifted into East Pakistan and India comes to aid the East Pakistanis. West Pakistan ends up losing and 90,000 soldiers become Indian prisoners of war.4

December: East Pakistan becomes the independent country of Bangledesh.4

December 20: Zulfikar Ali Bhutto takes over as chief martial law administrator and President of Pakistan after winning the general election.7

1972 Simla Accord: The governments of Pakistan and India resolved within this agreement to put an end to their conflict and disagreement and move towards a more friendly relationship. They both agree to devote resources and energy to advancing the welfare of the people and the UN would regulate relations between the two countries.2

1973 August 13: Bhutto becomes Prime Minister of Pakistan and Fazal Elah Choudary becomes President.7
August14: Constitution is passed under Bhutto and Choudary.7

1974 Pakistan recognizes Bangladesh. The government of Kashmir reaches an accord with India and says it will be a "constituent unit of the Union of India" but Pakistan rejects it.4

1978 September 16: General Zia-ul-Haq becomes President of Pakistan.7

1979 April 4: Bhutto is hanged.7

November: Hostage crisis in Iran lasting 444 days.5
Soviet Union invades Afghanistan.3

1980 The Soviet Union installs a puppet regime in Kabul, Afghanistan, while the U.S., Pakistan, China, Iran, and Saudi Arabia support the mujahadeen, in their guerrilla war against the Soviets.3

1981 March 23: 1973 constitution is suspended under Zia's martial law7

1984 December: Zia becomes President of Pakistan.7

1986 August: Karakoram Highway is opened for public use across the borders of Pakistan and Afghanistan.7

1988 Pakistan and India sign an agreement to not attack each other's nuclear facilities.4

1988-1989 The Soviet Union withdraws troops from Afghanistan.3

1989 Armed resistance to India rule in the Kashmir valley starts into the early 1990s. The skirmishes between the two countries start to turn from a secular to an Islamic one. The Jihadi "freedom fighters" arrive in Kashmir valley, most of whom had fought against the Soviets in the 1980s.4

1990 November 1: Nawaz Sharif becomes Prime Minister of Pakistan.7

1992 Pakistan acquires scientific know-how to build a nuclear bomb.4

Mujahadeen led under Ahmed Shah Massoud, remove the Soviet backed government led by President Mohammed Najibullah.3

1993 April 19: Sharif is dismissed by President Ghulam Ishaq Khan, and both men resign later that year.7

October 19: Benazir Bhutto comes to power again after wining the elections.7

November 13: Sardar Farooq Ahmed Khan Laghari is appointed as President.7

1994 Pakistan appoints the Taliban to protect a trade convoy and later the Taliban quickly become one of the strongest factions.3

1996 August: Taliban "Students of Islam" launch a surprise offensive attack and overrun Jalalabad.5

The Taliban, led under Mullah Mohammed Omar, take control of Kabul, and implement their strict interpretation of Islamic law. Osama Bin Laden is offered refuge.3

1997 February 17: Sharif is re-elected as Prime Minister.7

1998 January 1: Raffiq Tarrar becomes President of Pakistan.7

April 6: First 1,500 km IRBM (Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile) is tested by Pakistan.7

May 28: Five Nuclear Explosions are tested by Pakistan.7

August 20: The United States launches missiles at suspected Bin Laden bases in retaliation for the bombing of embassies in Africa.3

1999 March: The UN brokers a peace agreement between the Taliban and the Northern Alliance led under Ahmed Shah Massoud, but fighting would later break out again in July.3

April 15: Shaheen missiles are test fired by Pakistan.7

May 26: Kargil Conflict. India's Prime Minister, Atal Bihari Vajpayee orders India's air force into action over Pakistan for first time since 1979. India fights with MiG and Mirage Planes supplied by the Soviet Union and Pakistani fighters have fight with stinger missiles supplied by the United States.5 India's claim is that Pakistani forces were engaged in operations where as Pakistan asserted that they were freedom fighters fighting to liberate the Jammu/Kashmir territory. Fightin gcontinued and both sides claimed victory after the US pressured Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif of Pakistan to withdraw troops.4

October: General Perevez Musharraf leads a military coup overthrowing Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. Musharraf's power is validated by Pakistan's supreme court for three years but condemned by the international community.4

The Taliban take Mazari-Sharif a key city to the Sunni. Shiites especially in the Hazara ethnic group, were reported, though unconfirmed, to be held in mass arrests and executions numbering in the thousands.3

November: The UN imposes an embargo and freezes Taliban assets, wanting Osama Bin Laden handed over for trial.3

2000 December 9: Sharif and family are exiled from Pakistan under Musharraf's government.7

2001 January: The UN adds an arms embargo against the Taliban.

May-July: The Taliban enforce strict interpretations of Islamic law in Afghanistan, including ordering Hindi women to wear veils and banning the internet, playing cards, computer discs, movies, TV, musical instruments and more.3

August: Eight Christian foreign aid workers, including two Americans, were arrested by the Taliban for proselytizing.3

September 9: Northern Alliance commander Ahmed Shah Massoud is fatally wounded in a suicide bombing.3

September 11: Pakistan agrees to cooperate with the United State's campaign against Osama Bin Laden.4

September: Days after 9/11, Saudia Arabia and UAE cut off relations with Taliban.5

Mid September: More than 4,000 Afghans a day try to flee into Pakistan fearing U.S. reprisals. The Taliban offer to hand over Bin Laden only when presented with his guilt and suggest that he be tried by Muslim clerics. The UN and Red Cross cut halt aid to Afghanistan.3

September 24: The Taliban call for Jihad against the Americans.3

October 7: The United States begin bombing at Taliban sites in Afghanistan.3

October 26: The Taliban execute former mujahadeen leader Abul Haq, his nephew, and anti-Taliban commander Haj Dawran who had tried to convince Taliban leaders to defect.3

November 11: Three international journalists are killed near Taloqan in a Taliban ambush.3

November 13: Northern Alliance enters Kabul and the Taliban fall back from Kandahar.3

November 25: The first major incursion of U.S. troops in Afghanistan occurs with hundreds of marines landing in Kandahar to fight the Taliban.3

December 9: the Taliban surrender Kandahar, Afghanistan and have been completely removed from power, but continue to enforce their strict policies in small villages.3

December 22: Hamid Karzai is sworn in as Chairman of an interim government to replace the Taliban. The United States recognizes Afghanistan's government for the first time since 1979.3

2002 January: Musharraf announces that Pakistan would not allow terrorist to operate on Pakistani soil.4

Pakistani intelligence detain Mullah Abdul Salam Zaeef, former ambassador of the Taliban to Pakistan, later handing him over into U.S. custody.3

March 2: The US begins operation Anaconda, a combined effort of US and Afghani forces to take down the Taliban and Al Qaeda forces in the mountains. The offensive lasts for 16 days with only eight casualties but hundreds of Taliban/Al Qaeda dead.3

September 6: Attempted assassination of Hamid Karzai.3

2004 January: Afganistan's Loya Jirga adopts a new constitution which grants men and women equality and defines Afghanistan as an Islamic Republic.1

March: President Karzai announces that Afghanistan's first post-Taliban election would be moved to September and the Taliban promise to disrupt the electoral process.1

July: The election gets moved to October.1

2005 The deadliest year for US troops in Afghanistan.1

2007 February: Authorities in Pakistan arrest top inner circle Taliban leader, Mullah Obaidullah. However, Pakistan continues to receive criticism for not confronting the Taliban.1

July: The Taliban kill one of 23 of a South Korean Protestant relief missions church group after their request for a prisoner exchange is not met.1

Quotes from Three Cups of Tea.

"'If you want to thrive in Baltistan, you must respect our ways' Haji Ali said, blowing on his bowl. 'The first time you share tea with a Balti, you are a stranger. The second time you take tea, you are an honored guest. The third time you share a cup of tea, you become family, and for our family, we are prepared to do anything, even die,' he said laying his hand warmly on Mortenson's own. 'Doctor Greg, you must take time to share three cups of tea. We may be uneducated, but we are not stupid. We have lived and survived here a long time.'"
-Haji Ali

"I wish westerners who misunderstand Muslims could have seen Syed Abbas in action that day…they would see that most people who practice the true teachigs of Islam, even conservative mullahs like Syed Abbas, believe in peace and justice, not in terror. Just as the Torah and Bible teach concern for those in distress, the Koran instructs all Muslims to make caring for widows, orphans, and refugees a priority."
-Greg Mortenson

"Nobel Prize winner Amartya Sen's idea that you can change a culture by giving its girls the tools to grow up educated so they can help themselves. It is amazing to see the idea in action, woring so well after only a generation and it fired me up to fight for girls' education in Pakistan."
-Greg Mortenson

"'I request America to look into our hearts,' Abbas continued, his voice straining with emotion, 'and see that the great majority of us are not terrorists, but good and simple people. Our land is stricken with poverty because we are without education. But today, another candle of knowledge has been lit. In the name of Allah the Almighty, may it light our way out of the darkness we find ourselves in.'"

-Syed Abbas, Supreme leader of northern Pakistan's Shia

"If we try to resolve terrorism with military might and nothing else, then we will be no safer than we were before 9/11. If we truly want a legacy of peace for our children, we need to understand that this is a war that will ultimately be won with books, not with bombs."
-Greg Mortenson

Works Cited

1. Fletcher, Amy. "Timeline: the Taliban 2006-2007." Infoplease. 18 May 2008 <http://www.infoplease.com/spot/taliban-time-2006-2007.html>.
2. Gandhi, Indira, and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. "Simla Agreement." Kashmir: Legal Documents. 18 May 2008 <http://www.kashmir-information.com/LegalDocs/SimlaAgreement.html>.
3. Hayes, Laura, and Borgna Brunner. "Timeline: the Taliban 1979-2006." Infoplease. 18 May 2008 <http://www.infoplease.com/spot/taliban-time.html>.
4. "India-Pakistan: Troubled Tensions." BBC. 17 May 2008 <http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/south_asia/2002/india_pakistan/timeline/default.stm>.
5. Mortenson, Greg, and David Oliver Relin. Three Cups of Tea. New York: Penguin Books, 2006.
6. Watan, Pat. "History of Pakistan." Angelfire. 19 May 2008 <http://www.angelfire.com/al/badela/timeline4.html>.

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